Researchers from Penn State used a tool to create an array of ultra-cold one-dimensional gases, which are made of atoms. The atoms are bosons, meaning all of their particles can be sorted. Bosons and fermions are quite different. But when the internal interactions in bosons are strong, their spatial distribution is actually the same as those of non-interacting fermions. When the gases can expand, while they are still put in one dimension, their velocity distribution becomes the same as those of non-interacting fermions.
The difference between bosons and fermions
Identical bosons congregate, while identical fermions are a little bit of loners. But in one dimension, bosons become similar to fermions, and no two can be in the same position. Researchers suggest that bosons acting like fermions can also happen when it comes to their velocities. This entire thing can help us in better understanding the development of quantum devices.
According to David Weiss, a Distinguished Professor of Physics at Penn State, all particles have one of two types, and it depends on their spin. “Bosons, whose spins are whole integers, can share the same quantum state, while fermions, whose spins are half integers, cannot. When the particles are cold or dense enough, bosons behave completely differently from fermions.”
Researchers showed that, when bosons expand into one dimension, they can form a Fermi sea. Identical fermions are antisocial, and you cannot have more than one in the same place. However, bosons can be in the same place, but it becomes too difficult if they are also very strong. “As a result, when constrained to move in one-dimension, their spatial distribution can look like that of non-interacting fermions.” The phenomena were first proved back in the 1960s.