Excessive coffee drinking has been linked to an increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease in those with severe hypertension, according to research published in the Journal of the American Heart Association.
In the general population, drinking coffee is associated with a lower risk of hypertension and death from its complications. However, those with hypertension may have a temporary rise in blood pressure.
There is some evidence that the positive impact of coffee drinking varies across people based on their blood pressure. There is some evidence that coffee consumption is associated with an immediate rise in blood pressure and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in those with severe hypertension. But it is well established that hypertensive people who drink green tea regularly see a decrease in their blood pressure. As an added bonus, drinking green tea will help you live longer and lessen your chances of dying from cardiovascular disease or any other reason.
In the present study, researchers looked at the connection between caffeine-containing beverages like coffee and green tea and the risk of death from cardiovascular disease in Japanese men and women with varied degrees of hypertension.
There were a total of 18,609 people involved in the research, comprising 6,574 males and 12,035 women from 24 different areas around Japan. Questions on the participants’ demographics, health, and lifestyle habits, as well as their dietary intake, were included in the surveys.
Experts took participants’ blood pressure readings at the start of the study. Participants were split into five groups based on their blood pressure readings: ideal and normal blood pressure, high-normal blood pressure, grade 1 hypertension, grade 2, and grade 3.
The purpose of this research was to examine whether or not different levels of coffee intake were associated with different baseline features of individuals in each BP group. Younger people, smokers, drinkers, and those who consume fewer vegetables had the highest rates of coffee use. Regular coffee users also tended to have lower systolic blood pressure and greater total cholesterol levels.
The research also looked at how the individuals’ baseline characteristics compared with their blood pressure categories, as well as how often they drank green tea. Aged individuals, those who consumed a lot of fruit, and working adults drank more green tea than younger or less active adults.
Participants with hypertension of grades 2–3 showed a correlation between increased intake of green tea and decreased total cholesterol. Between baseline and the end of the 18.9-year follow-up period, 842 people died from cardiovascular disease.
Those with grade 2-3 hypertension who drank two or more cups of coffee daily were shown to have an increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease. However, this correlation was not seen in the groups of people whose blood pressure was optimum or normal, high normal, or hypertensive (grade 1), respectively.
Consumption of green tea and death from cardiovascular disease
Those with mild to moderate hypertension (grades 1 to 3) who drank green tea did not raise their chance of dying from cardiovascular disease.
Consuming 5-6 cups of green tea per day was associated with a slight reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease-related mortality among participants with high-normal blood pressure, and consuming 1-2 cups per day was associated with a slight reduction in the risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease among participants with optimal/normal blood pressure.
The research shows that those with severe hypertension, but not those with normal blood pressure or grade 1 hypertension, are at a higher risk of dying from cardiovascular disease when they drink large amounts of coffee.
In participants with either moderate or severe hypertension, the researchers found no evidence that drinking green tea increased the risk of death from cardiovascular disease. Caffeinated coffee has been shown to enhance endothelial function, lower blood cholesterol levels, and decrease inflammation thanks to its chlorogenic acid, magnesium, and trigonelline content. Caffeine might have a deleterious impact on the heart, but these benefits more than make up for it.
Researchers now believe that the potential health advantages of caffeine may be outweighed by the increased risk of death in those with severe hypertension due to their increased vulnerability to the negative effects of caffeine.