Triglycerides, a type of fat that circulates in the blood, arise from the digestion process when the body experiences a surplus of calories. An increased number of triglycerides in the blood causes a number of conditions to occur: hypertriglyceridemia, diabetes mellitus, obesity, overweight and coronary heart disease or stroke.
When triglycerides accumulate in a large amount of fatty tissue, obesity or overweight occurs, and hypertriglyceridemia occurs when large quantities accumulate in the blood. Hypertriglyceridemia is usually asymptomatic until the triglycerides are over 1000-2000 mg/dl.
Here are some signs of triglyceride levels:
- Dermatological manifestations
The eruptive xanthomas (spots of about 1-4 mm in diameter surrounded by a red halo) are found when the triglycerides are over 1000 mg / dl. They are more prominent on the back, chest, chest and proximal extremities. The lesions are caused by the accumulation of chylomicrons (lipoprotein-rich microscopic particles, rich in triglycerides present in the blood after digestion of absorbed fats in the small intestine) and gradually disappears when triglycerides are maintained below 1000 mg/dl.
- Gastrointestinal manifestations
If pancreatitis or chylomicronemia syndrome is present, the patient reports epigastric pain or the upper right side along with palpation sensitivity. Also described are enlarged liver and rarely enlarged spleen. These patients have triglycerides above 2000 mg/dl and a history of multiple episodes of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, or dyspnoea.
- Ophthalmic manifestations
Triglyceride levels above 4000 mg/dl cause a condition known as retinalis lipaemia, where the fundoscopic examination shows blood vessels on the retina.
- Neurological manifestations
Memory loss, dementia, and depression have been reported in patients with chylomicronemia syndrome.
What are the causes of their growth?
Some daily habits may increase the number of triglycerides in the blood. For example, a diet that contains excess fat or carbohydrate, a sedentary life, which does not include at least 30 minutes of exercise or daily sports, contributes to a triglyceride level of more than 150 mg/dl – their normal value. Also, low alcohol consumption, but repeatedly, as well as consumption of food from white flour and high sugar content, can expose us to the risk of hypertriglyceridemia.
What to do
Specialists recommend that we try to eat foods that contain healthy, mono and polyunsaturated fat. Some such foods are olives, oleaginous fruits (nuts, hazelnuts, almonds, pistachios). At the same time, Omega-3 fatty acids found in fish preparations can help balance the triglyceride value.