The vaccine approach for mice that stimulates the creation of antibodies to prevent not just SARS-CoV-2, but also a broad spectrum of other coronaviruses, was developed by researchers in Japan. The effective human translation might result in the creation of a strategy to the next generative vaccine to avoid future coronaviral pandemics. The study appeared in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.
The COVID-19-responsible SARS-CoV-2 Virus entering human cells is to attach to the receptor on the cell surface called ACE2 utilizing its spike protein. The receptor-binding area of the spike protein comprises of two sections, namely the core zone, and a header area.
“This suggests that, although the generation of broadly neutralizing antibodies is possible, SARS-CoV-2 infection and current vaccines are unlikely to provide protection against the emergence of novel SARS-related viruses. Given that prior coronavirus epidemics such as SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV have occurred due to zoonotic coronaviruses crossing the species barrier, the potential for the emergence of similar viruses in the future poses a significant threat to global public health, even in the face of effective vaccines for current viruses.” explained Professor Tomohiro Kurosaki
In fact, vaccinated animals generated a considerably larger share of antibodies with those modified proteins which recognize the central area of the spike protein receptor domain. Much effort will be needed to transfer the technique for people, but findings show that modified variants of the spike-receptor binding field might be used to produce widely protecting next-generation coronavirus immunizations.
Kurosaki and fellow workers have chosen to explore a novel approach to vaccinate the immune system, which would make the antibodies more widespread. Genetically, the researchers have developed the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-assembly domain covering its headland with more sugar molecules. These sugar molecules might protect the head area against the immune system and enhance the development of antibodies against the unbroken core region.